June 30, 2011

Bony Fish? Do the Sarawak Way.....

Today's post is dedicated to all my friends who love to eat fish (not just the expensive fish which cost more than RM20.00 per kg now...or some which cost 100 ringgit per kg or more...)

When we were young we ate so many different kinds of fish caught in the river and the sea. Sometimes we literally had the free fish given to us by God (Dad was a keen fisherman who could use hooks and traps especially the bubu...)

And I remember that sometimes Dad would share his pailful of fish with some of our employees (Pulau Kerto) especially the bony ones. Their children who were my playmates would then have a fish in their hands throughout the evening. That was their "snack" or "tea". And I could hear the crunchiness of the fish in their hands. To me it was their keropok and I would watch them eat and play at the same time

 I would have my meal later..sitting properly at the table with the family Conservative Chinese style. And we would all eat quietly too with only Dad saying a few words. Mum would be holding the youngest while we ate. She would always eat later. (This sounds very much like a paragraph from "The Good Earth" by P.S. Buck..)

Dad would select his own fish - the finger sized ensulai and prawns for us. We might have Ikan Baong or a small tapah. All these depended on what the tide would bring to him (and us). Occasionally we had a big Mata Merah for dinner to my mother's delight. It was especially meaningful when we had visitors staying over night and it was almost like a festival when we had a good fish on the table. Those were the days when we literally had "from the river to the table" kind of meals as we had no refrigerator at home even though my father was the manager of the Ice Factory.

But the other seeing my friend frying her fish in this way...all my memories of my younger days flooded back quickly....and I can still smell the aroma of fish frying in a small kuali in the wooden house(workers' quarters) behind the Ice Factory. We all ate early at about 5 p.mm. in those days because we wanted to save our fuel be it kerosene or electricity. By night fall all of us children would be sent to our bedroom and kept under the mosquito nets.

Sweet yellow fish which is very bony
This is how your seasoned fish can be sliced right across the fish body till the skeletal portion
Deep fry the fish in  fresh oil and your fish will come out crunchy and nice like  fish crackers.

This kind of deep frying of fish is a good way to prepare lesser "types" of fish and you can have nasi lemak and some salted fish and vegetable soup. A fantastic dinner for less than 10 ringgit for the whole family.

Hope one day you will try frying fish this way too as an experiment. You can even eat all the bones...and the eyes and the heads.....LOL.

June 29, 2011

Organ Donation Campaign in Miri

Malaysian Red Crescent Miri Chapter 

22nd - 24th July 2011 
Are you an Organ
Pledger ? 
Venue : 1st Floor, New Wing, Bintang Mega Mall 
Organ Donation Campaign 

July 2011 will see many people working hard for Miri's Red Crescent's Organ Donation Campaign..

See you at the Bintang Mall 22nd-24th July 2011

Would you be amongst the Organ Donors?

spread your love around..pledge your organs.....

Your donation can save lives and spread the warmth of the human spirit ......We need your help!!

The world needs you!

June 28, 2011

Fat Cat of Miri

Many people I know would plan for a long day out at the Bintang Mall usually at the end of the month. And they would include a meal at Fat Cat. I have also found out that it was not just the Foochows who gather around the good hearted Fat Cat proprietor but many other dialectic groups and races (and foreigners who have discovered him)!! "Fat Cat" was also a favourite caterer for many school and church picnics as his stall is very centrally located in Miri.

What was his secret? His old style (not the corporate fashionable style) friendliness and his kindness. He would always give his customers more than they paid for. And that was true for many of his faithful home cooked food loving customers. How long  had he and his family been operating Fat Cat at Bintang Mall? 17 years. And every year his food got better.

It was a real shock to me that he and his family had to move away from his top floor spot - which has become one of the favourite eating places in Miri. And a second kitchen to many busy housewives.

Would he operate in Miri again? We have to wait and see. But in the meantime we will have to forego eating the nice curry chicken and the hot favourite - steamed minced pork with tou hoo.... His stir fried meeding was always fresh and crunchy and tasty.

The main dish which pulled me - Foochow style minced pork with tou hoo. (When I took this photo...only a little left.....oooooo)

Happy food server with a polite attitude towards all races...a winning point.

The mother figure who always gave a nice smile and an understanding nod.
The happy go lucky man..Fat Cat. He is multi lingual and is a keen observer of people. If he had gone to school he would have scored high in EQ and psychology. He used to be heavier. Now he has slimmed down and looks very young.
Mixed vegatables - quality food.
Deep fried chicken - A little Louisiana  flavour!!
Very nice tenggir - my favourite
Kicap belly pork...so nostalgically good
sweet and sour meat balls....
Sabah pumpkin shoots
Foochow style chicken curry - a winner
Special fried rice - you can order by the plate and he would fry for you with the ingredients you like!!

The busy mother would pack some lovely dishes from this stall and enjoy a nice easy meal at home...hence we shall miss him and his team a lot....Hope he comes back to Miri and we can enjoy his food again!!

June 27, 2011

Fishing Boat...full to the brim....

Diesel subsidies and the hike in petrol prices are the issues which help to increase the price of fish in Sarawak. I remember 20 years ago in Sibu ikan tenggiri (ma kah or Spanish Mackerel) cost only 3 ringgit a kilo. Now it can fetch up to 24 ringgit a kilo in Miri!! It is more or less the same in Sibu.

Doesn't the figure say a lot about inflation in Malaysia?

In Sibu we were quite at home with fishermen from all races going to sea in those days and boats would come in loaded (some overloaded) with fish of all kinds. Pomfrets (duai puteh) were the favoured fish.

So when I saw this fishing boat chugging up the Sarawak River at Pertanak Market recently I was filled with nostalgia....

I was not quick enough to capture many shots of it and I was photographing against the sun too. It was have been nice to have its movements from the beginning to the end when it disappeared at the corner.

What signals does it give to other fishermen? Where is the boat registered? Is it  privately owned? How powerful is it? What are the safety measures taken? How many fishermen are on board?

Is it an A? or B? or C?

June 26, 2011

Spongebob Squarepants Mushroom newly discovered in Borneo forest

This is exciting really!! Read more.......
A new species of mushroom has been named by its discoverers after the cartoon character SpongeBob SquarePants.
The fungus, named Spongiforma squarepantsiiby the researchers at San Francisco State University (SFSU), was found during an expedition to the forests of Borneo.
S. squarepantsii is shaped like a sea sponge and, say its discoverers, has a fruity or musty smell.
SpongeBob is the star of an eponymous television cartoon series which began in 1999. The character, who wears a short pair of square, brown trousers, lives in the fictional locality of Bikini Bottom.
The new mushroom is only one of two species that belong in the genusSpongiforma. The other one is found in central Thailand, but differs in its colour and odour.
"We expect that it has a wider range than these two areas," said Professor Dennis E Desjardin, from SFSU, who is a co-author of the scientific paper.

Reference source and photo from BBC
Spongiforma squarepantsii (SFSU)

If you happen to see this in one of your walks please take a photo or photos......Our indigenous people would probably have a common name for it too....

June 25, 2011

Jering - a local Sarawak fruit from the kampongs

You might sometimes wonder what these plates of brown hard seeds are for! In the local markts you can see many people selling them. Buah jering is both a medicine and a vegetable.

The botanical name for buah jering is Archidendron Jiringa. It is grown wild but it might also be cultivated in the soft soils of the kampongs. 

Jering are medium-sized trees that can reach 20 m in height. The bark is smooth and light grey in color. The leaves are compound, two pinnate up to 25 cm long, leaf stalks up to 6 cm long.

The leaflets are 8-25 cm ling, 4-5 cm wide, ovate to booing in shape, light green, shiny.

Young leave are soft, purplish red in color. 

The fruit is a legume, 5 cm wide, twisted in a spiral, purplish brown in color. Seeds are large, testa yellowish when young, reddish brown when mature, the edible cotyledons are yellowish when young, becoming orange brown when mature.

Jering rebus

The local Malays believe that its leaves can be pounded and applied in chest pains, pains, skin ailments. Furthermore in olden days before Mopiko and Tiger Balm ashes were obtained by burning the old leaves and applied on itch. Ashes obtained by burning the young leaves were applied on cuts, wounds.

Here is something surprising too. Our maid from Indonesia once said that the bark could be pounded and made into a gargle for treating gum pains, toothache.

In Miri most local people prepare the fruits at meals to treat diabetes, hypertension.

Sambal jering

In Taiwan huge jering could be found and the hard seeds are made into souvenirs.

consider yourelf lucky if you have a jering tree growing in your back yard!!

June 23, 2011

Remembering the Spring Roll Wrappers Man of Sibu........

I have this longing for popiah skin and spring rolls....for when I was young my mother would always send me out to buy popiah skins on festival days and I would always be on the look out for the man who made the popiah skin at the corner lot on High Street of Sibu in front of Tai Sing.....There were two or three others who made the skin in Sibu but this man made them on the spot....and he had a very special customer attitude.

I think most people would also appreciate this. When we were children...to have mum making popiah was a real treat...and if we could get our hands on making them...we could roll for ourselves some wonderful goodies. Spring rolls were made only four times a year during the important festivals for most people who celebrated the festivals. In those days almost every one celebrated Chinese festivals in a small way. Sometimes those were the only days when we had a good meal or meat on the table.

However making of spring rolls also taught us that we should not be greedy or else our popiah would burst in its skin. Hence learning to roll or wrap spring roll was actually a good training ground for meticulous kitchen skills and food handling. Besides nice looking spring rolls which were also dainty as well delighted the eyes and heart. Mum used to say that small and neat spring rolls say a lot about our character.

And many many years later one of the best gatherings I ever had with my own colleagues in Sibu was our special popiah party. That was really a good idea for good friends to gather together for R and R. Gone are those days ..and we might never come together again because one of them just passed away two weeks ago.....If we had digital cameras or phone cameras then we could have some great photos to remember the occasion.

I am now staying in a town where no one makes fresh popiah skin at a corner lot. We don't have a man who has stories to tell his customers. We have lost this special human touch - a man who makes popiah skin with love for his community......thanks to this blogger I have this photo of her home made popiah skin and because of this social network I may just go an make some myself. Thank you!!

She even gives us her recipe so generously.....

800 g All-Purpose Flour, sifted
1 ½ tsp Sea Salt
800 ml Water


Combine all the ingredients in a stand mixer bowl. Stir the batter with a wooden spatula, wrap with a cling film and let it rest for at least 3 hours.

Beat the batter for about 15 minutes, or until the batter is smooth and elastic.

Place the griddle or a flat cast-iron pan on a medium heat. Once the pan is hot, lower the heat slightly. Using one hand, coat the batter and rub onto the pan. Then use the other hand to peel off the wrapper when it is cooked.

Makes about 50 pieces (7 to 8”)even gives us her recipe generously -

Any way...with the world getting smaller we need not actually make our own spring roll skin for we can buy them in the supermarket.....But we still have to do a lot of preparation for the filling..and perhaps that is where the fun is. The conversation we can have when we slice and chop...when we pound and laugh.....etc...

This photo is contributed by my friend Judy who went to Vietnam recently....Thanks Judy....

Remember when some one wraps a spring roll for you...it is an act of love.....

It is nice to describe Sibu popiah as "Spring love all wrapped up for you......"in freshly made skins.

And when the opportunity comes we should all attempt to make an effort to show our love....for the next generation and the next generation .......

June 22, 2011

Old Fashioned Floating Toilet

A lot of people would have no problems answering nature's call in places with good toilet system.

In the more rural parts of Sarawak where sewerage is still rather primitive one can really be surprised by what you get.

There can be toilets with the best flush system in some very modern longhouses where roads have been built and there are some good toilets built inthe rural schools which cost a large amount of money because of the cost of the materials having to travel thousands of miles and some by air!!

Here is one example of a very simple and convenient toilet - a toilet which uses the river to flush the sewer away ...we call it the floating toilet in Sarawak and it can still be found in many places in Sarawak.

I used to be very frightened using one when I was younger. Whenever an express boat passed by the Sungei Igan I was so terrified that the jetty and the toilet and I would be washed away by the backwash!! The Rajang River had fewer of these toilets because of the heavy traffic flow in the river ...

But the floating toilets continue to provide bathing facilities (if the water is not too polluted) as it is more private with four walls. Is it true that as our society progresses we become more inhibited?

But definitely I feel that as the society progresses our government should provide better sewerage systems and public toilets both in the rural and urban areas......at least to prevent diseases. There is definitely a need for Rest and Relaxation along the long trunk roads of Sarawak...and besides we must try our best to reduce the number of floating toilets too.

June 21, 2011

Ayam Penyet and Safari Jaya of Brunei Darulsalam

Ayam Penyet is a favourite fast food in Brunei even though its origin may be Indonesian. However there is no debate about its origin. The people in Brunei embrace the recipe whole heartedly and young and old love it.

Besides the fragrant rice served in most Brunei shops is really the best of the long grained rice. Bruneians enjoy good rice (AAA)which is subsidized by the Sultan of Brunei. I too find the rice very tasty and sweet for a change from my hill padi or beras paya which comes from the lower lands..

My first impression of Ayam Penyet is that the chciken would come out smashed as the name implies. Actually ayam penyet is  twice cooked chicken. First it is braised in coconut milk and spices and then deep fried. When ordering a platted rice with ayam penyet most people would ask for a drumstick which will then be a good sambal. Bruneian sambal is different from Malaysian sambal. Some raw vegetables are also given. That usually costs Bru $3.50.

This is near the Hua Ho of Kiulap.....

Some how the juiciness of the chicken is remarkable. But it is the sambal that sends the rice down to your stomach with a special oomph.

Here's how you can prepare your own at home.....

 1 whole Chicken, cut into 4 or 8 pieces (as desired) or chicken parts of your choice.

Recipe for one chicken (for a family of 4 or 6)

- 300 ml of coconut milk
- 200 ml of water
- 1 Salaam leafs or bay leaf
- 2 stalks fresh Lemongrass (Sereh/Serai), bruised
- Lime juice from 1 fresh lime
Spice Paste (pounded)

- 4 cloves of garlic
- 2 Candlenuts
- 1-2  teaspoon coriander (I prefer more)
- 2 teaspoon salt

For Sambal (pound together)
- 5 red chillies
- 4 bird's eyes chillies
- 6 shallots
- 1 or 2  cloves of garlic
- 1 teaspoon salt or less
- 1 teaspoon gula melaka
1. Grind or blend the spice paste.
2. Boil  the chicken over slow fire with the spice paste, coconut milkSalaam leafs,Lemongrass and water. Cook until it's tender and spices are all absorbed.
3. When the chicken is already cooked, leave it to cool for a while..
4. (If you prefer a healthy meal you need not go through this step I was told). Heat the oil in non-stick frying pan, fry the chicken until it's brown andcrispy. Set aside . When cooled cut into six or eight portions and flatten (penyet)  the chicken pieces and serve.
5. sauté the sambal paste with  a small amount of oil until it's fragrant for couple of minutes. When it's ready sprinkle with lime juice and then serve.

If you don't wish to have ayam panyet or any other dishes you can opt for the roti canai here....and at the same time you can enjoy your football too.
The teh tarik here has good standing and is recommendable.
Besides the team of workers are very friendly and courteous.

June 20, 2011

Sibu Housewives and the Twin Tub Washing Machine

The American housewives in the 50's could not live without the twin tub . That washing machine seemed to say a lot about a careful housewife in those days. Now it is almost a thing of the past world wide.

The Indian mother of the bride would insist that part of the gifts her daughter must have was the twin tub in the 60's in West Malaysia. Any one not having a TT washing machine would have a lot of "tut tut tut..." or tongue wagging from their neighbours!! Some would even be stressed out being seen using the washing board at the back of the house!!

And proud Sibu housewives would share with each other how clean their washing was because they owned a twin tub.....a lady I used to know proudly said that her children's shirts were always brushed first and then washed in the twin tub....and their collars would always be sparkling white...no thanks to OMO!! It was definitely her brushing of the collar with Sunlight soap. And then she would rattle on about the different kinds of brushes for different kinds of materials. She was a woman who could have started ISO certification in laundry...but gone are the days with people like her and her washing. Today the lucky people have maids to do their washing. So may be neighbours would have different ways of bragging about their household chores.

My mother would adamantly first wash all the clothes by hand and then she would throw them into the tub for further washing. Later she would patiently take out all the clothes for the spin....If she found the clothes still not too clean she would have them washed again with more water.....That's her idea of doing her laundry then.  The TT was her ideal washing machine. She would never buy a single tub washing machine for a long long time..

My niece's twin tub in Rh Aling. Seeing her twin tub brings back a lot of  memories to me.

Indeed my frist washing machine was a twin tub. What about you?

In certain days  I myself would wash a few pieces of unmentionables  by hand and had them spin dry in the second tub. I had the machine for quite a long time.  And then one day I really had to get rid of it because I was almost electrocuted  when I put my hands into the water when the tub refused to drain. Never give your washing machine a chance to kill you.

My mother continued to have a twin tub but then my next machine was a single tub automatic machine. For after having a few more children I found that by having a single load automatic machine was more than a boon.

Now I am happy and would not be threatened by any neighbour who tells me that a twin tub is the best washing machine there ever is for the clean and perfectionist housewife.......on rainy days I spoil myself by using a dryer...Everyone can choose his or her own washing machine....and be happy.

By the way I do need some special pre-wash laundry detergent or home made enzymes to get rid of dirt on the collars.....sigh.....

June 19, 2011

Coconut Scraper

There have been a great many types of traditional coconut scrapper.

We have been quite use to the original scraper with a wooden base which the urban Malays have been using. Today this old fashion wood base coconut scraper can still be found in many kampong homes.

Then when electricity came to Sibu as late as the 1960's some one invented the electric rotating scrapper. The proto type is still in use in many parts of Sarawak. We thus started to buy grated coconut by the katis in sundry shops. How convenient it was for women!! We made onde onde and other kuihs more easily after that. Kaya was made faster as a result too. We did not have to start from scratch.(or scrape)

However if we look at our fellow women in the rural areas who do not have the benefit of electricity we realise how fortunate we are in the cities and towns.

This simple metal scrapper is used by many housewives who do not have the benefit of the urban service of an electric scraper. They have to depend on their own coconut trees behind their longhouse for an old coconut to drop and save for the time they need to make their cakes or kuih.

Besides scraping coconut this metal scraper can be used to scrape many other kinds of root vegetables.

What a clever and simple invention.

June 18, 2011

People: Very Polite Frame Maker of Miri

There are many different kinds of frame makers ...some you know well and some are "not your cup of tea"

But usually when you find a good frame maker you keep on going back to him and enjoy his advice on the frames you buy.

Often it is not the price you get but the service he provides.

Certain times in our life we need to make a frame or two...In Miri you have plenty of choices...and here is one who has been around for a long time...He definitely knows how to be considerate and make good suggestions....

June 17, 2011

Buah Salak

Most people in Miri and Kuching are familiar with the "Snake fruit" and many would know that it is a fruit eaten by the Indonesians. However we are not sure it this fruit has been brought over by the Bugis and planted in the soils of Sarawak. Any way by the 80's one can see that this fruit is sold in the Pasar Tani or Tamu of Miri and Kuching.

Today most Sarawakian children have learnt to enjoy this fruit but not all have an understanding of this fruit.

So you might have gathered that the Salak fruit is indigenous to and has been cultivated throughout Indonesia, and there are at least 30 cultivars, most of which have an astringent taste and are sweet. Two popular cultivars are salak pondoh from Yogyakarta province (found in 1980s) and salak Bali from Bali island.(Wikipedia)

I think the variety Salak pondoh is the type we get in Sarawak. When I first ate the fruit many years ago I felt that it was an unusual type of fruit, rather tart and a little sticky because of the sap. It is an acquired taste. Needless to say I have liked it ever since and often buy a lot of the fruit as a gift for friends in Sibu and Miri when it is in season.

The point I want to bring up is that many people are not "adventurous" in their eating. For example many people would not even try to eat this fruit when offered. Is it the unfamiliarity? Or it is lack of introduction?

They would just shrug and say "I don't eat this kind of fruit." Some even grimace or make a snort!

This could be taken negatively by the person who offers the fruit (or any other fruit)

Is this some kind of discrimination? or is it just personality?

Buah Salak sold in the side stalls in Batu Niah

Buah Salak sold by Malay ladies (many of them are actually Indonesians)

I think when we are offered a foreign or exotic food item or a fruit that we just need to be gracious and kind to the "offerer" or host.

Accept the food with a nice smile graciously and give the offered food a small bite. Even if you are not in the same level as Andrew Zimmerman (AFC Bizarre Food)you can always give yourself a chance to try out something new. Ian Wright (TLC) has shown us his humourous side when receiving some exotic food.

A little courtesy goes a long way...especially when you are offered a nasty looking fruit like the Buah Salak....

June 16, 2011

Seri Sarawak

Seri Sarawak was once the pride of Sarawak State Government. Wherever it sailed Sarawakians (old and young) would flock to the wharves to see the TYT(the Sarawak Governor) arriving or departing. In the beginning of Malaysia the TYT and his family were indeed the few celebrities we had. There were no celebrity chefs or Malaysian Idols or YBs like today,etc.

I remember in particular that there were parties on board the boat was like a floating hotel on the Rajang River!! And many of us teenagers would have a nice evening dreaming about being on the stately boat as we sat by the banks of the Rajang in Sibu.

Such was the opulence of the day.

Nevertheless I was fortunate to be been on board at least once some forty years ago and it was an evening to remember. My friend and I wore identical batik made in Indonesia. Hers was a sarong kebaya. Mine was a kaftan. I wonder if she can still remember that. We had a "cocktail" party which is quite unheard of nowadays.

I was surprised when a friend put a photo on her facebook and I realised that Seri Sarawak was in town! So like an old lady I went to the Marina and had a look....It was rather empty and at night there were no lights.  However even its empty shell still spells glamour.

From this angle the boat resting in the Miri Marina seems to be still elegant and sturdy.....

The front part (bow) is still good looking.

this photo below is by my friend....shows how tired looking the boat is...sitting by the Marina perhaps waiting for some renovation....What will be its future? Who is its owner now?  The rust has set in...and it looks a bit lonesome in the twilight.

There has been talk that it should be reinstated to its former glory and kept as a heritage show piece for Sarawak!!

June 15, 2011

The Bemban

This is a beautiful white flower you often see in swamps undisturbed by development. It leads you to a wonder plant which is a necessity of Iban families. However today the bemban has also become part of local horticulture as the plant is sold in nurseries for landscaping. The bemban thus has made an inroad into modern urban life!!

It has been around for ages and has served local Sarawakians well....

Bemban (Mohtra Reed) grows in bunches around lake water and open lands and it is found naturally in the Limbang valley where many Iban ladies can collect freely this plant material for mat and basket making.

The leaf is cylindrical and wide depicting tiny strips of intertwined veins. Its scientific name is Donax grandis from the Marantaceae family.

The flowers emerge in bunches of pairs, white in colour, with secondary petals. Bemban has small round fruits, yellow in colour, each containing 1- 3 seeds.

This lady from Kuching makes bemban handbags for sale.
A winnowing tray ( chepang) made from bemban

Bemban mats which are very cooling - an ideal mat for hot nights.

Pretty and intricate "weave" from bemban.

The bemban is a local Sarawak reed and is often considered the poorer cousin of the more valueable rattan. The Chinese call it Water Bamboo and the mats made from it are called Water Bamboo Mats - highly valued for babies to sleep on.

According to Heidi Munan "the standard Iban mat is made of bemban, a white-flowering reed of the arrowroot family (Donax spp) that grows in swampy places. The village women tend the plants, and allocate appropriate harvesting rights to the mat-makers. Suitable lengths are cut, then the shiny outer skin is stripped off; this is the working material."

It is not an easy task to harvest the bemban because certain adat must be kept. " Unlike rattan, bemban is harvested by the women themselves. Bemban, like most mat-making materials, must be harvested during the new moon. There appears to be a scientific basis for this ’superstition’ – the plants contain less sap at this time, so they will dry better, and be less susceptible to fungus and insect attack when they are stored later. The bark strips are carefully trimmed to equal width; a well made mat is of a tight, even texture. Craftworkers distinguish between the ‘bemban ai’, which is generally used for making mats, and the somewhat more rigid ‘bemban batu’ which can also be used to make small baskets, and the characteristic patterned sun hat called ‘tangoi lelambak’. (Munan)

Pretty leaves make it a welcome plant in urban homes.....
The branch is long, segmental and shiny like that of bamboo but it branches out in mulitiplication.
It is also known for its benefits in alternative medicine.The roots are known to contain substance that cools our body. The roots are boiled and later drank to help reduce the heat in our body.

The sap from the leaves is also known to be an effective eye drop that helps rejuvenate the eyes.

I wonder what will be the real future of this ancient reed......would it be on the endangered list?

Sibu Tales : Making Bah Gui from Scratch

The pioneering families of Sibu Foochows continued to practise the  adoption of girls from poor families who become their maids (slaves). ...